Saudi Arabian driver Yazeed Al Rajhi was not able to repeat last year's success in Kazakhstan.
But he and German co-driver Dirk von Zitzewitz claimed two stage wins, led after day one and recovered from a third-day roll and a series of punctures to reach the finish in eighth overall.
Jakub in the mix
Defending World Champion Jakub Przygonski was just over three minutes behind the stage winner in third and Ten Brinke came in fifth with the third Toyota in a time of 2hrs 30min 26sec.
The fourth selective section ran for 399.24km on a route that guided crews back to Aktau City from a start in Kenderli via the petroleum hub at Zhanaozen.
It marked an enthralling finish to the event organised by the Automotorsport Federation of the Republic of Kazakhstan as Al Attiyah did just enough to stave off any late pressure from Peterhansel to secure the victory for Overdrive Racing and take the outright FIA World Cup lead.
"I'm obviously very happy to win Rally Kazakhstan and now I'm leading the championship. Now we're waiting for Morocco. This is a good year for us. Six wins in total and six races in which I compete. We controlled the pace well today. It was a nice stage, no problems," said an elated Al Attiyah.